Anatomy is the science of studying and understanding the structure and organization of the body. The art of medicine requires a strong foundation in the basic medical sciences, and anatomy is a keystone in that foundation. This concise review of human anatomy is designed for medical, dental, graduate, physician associate, nursing, physical therapy, and other health science students. It is intended to help students prepare for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), the National Board Dental Examination, as well as other board examinations for students in health related professions. It presents the essentials of human anatomy in the form of condensed descriptions and simple illustrations. The text is concisely outlined with related board-type questions following each section. An attempt has been made to include all board-relevant information without introducing a vast amount of material or entangling students in a web of details. Even though this book is in summary form, its content presents key elements of the full-text version with abundant clinical information. However, it is not intended to be used as a primary textbook for a comprehensive study of difficult concepts and fundamentals.
CHANGE OF ORGANIZATION
The new eighth edition begins with a brief introduction to the skeletal, muscular, nervous, circulatory, and organ systems. The introductory chapter is followed by chapters on regional anatomy. These include the introduction, back, thorax, abdomen, perineum and pelvis, lower limb, upper limb, head and neck, and cranial and autonomic nerves of the head and neck. The cranial and autonomic nerves are separated from the head and neck chapter and are described more extensively with high-quality illustrations to facilitate thorough understanding of cranial and autonomic nerve functions and memory retention of information. Once more, anatomy forms a foundation of clinical medicine and surgery and is a visual science of human structures. Thus, the success of learning and understanding largely depends on the quality of dissection and on clear, accurate illustrations. Many of the illustrations are simple schematic drawings, which are used to enhance the student’s understanding of the descriptive text. A few of the illustrations are more complex, attempting to exhibit important anatomic relations. The considerable number of tables of muscles will prove particularly useful as a summary and review. In addition, the high-yield topics at the end of each chapter emphasize more important facts of anatomy and clinical medicine. These include numerous concise charts for the cranial nerves and their lesions, autonomic nerve functions, summary charts for muscle innervation and action, autonomic ganglia, and foramina of the skull and their contents in order to highlight pertinent aspects of the body system.
Test questions at the end of each chapter emphasize important information and lead to a better understanding of the material. These questions also serve as a self-evaluation to help the student uncover areas of weakness. Answers and explanations are provided after the questions.
FEATURES OF THE NEW EDITION
■ Four-Color Illustrations and Extensive Medical Art Illustrations play critical roles in assisting students to visualize anatomic structures, clarify difficult concepts, and help identify their functional and clinical characteristics. Some illustrations have been rearranged or redrawn, and many new figures and images have been incorporated. Furthermore, the addition of new four-color illustrations reflects more artistic efforts, illuminates the beauty of the anatomical architecture of human tissues and organs, clarifies intricate concepts, enhances the quality and clarity of the images, and facilitates comprehension and quick recall of the text materials. Many new colorful diagrams, line drawings, and angiograms are included in the text, aiding the process of learning and relating anatomic structures with their functional and clinical application.
■ Expanded and Updated Clinical Correlations Clinical correlations emphasize the importance of anatomical knowledge by relating basic anatomy to actual medical practice. They are designed to challenge the student, enhance genuine understanding of anatomy, and encourage assimilation of information. The clinical correlates are set in boxes and placed at relevant locations in the text. Many clinical correlation boxes have been edited, updated, combined, or regrouped.
■ High-Yield Topics with End-of-Chapter Summaries The high-yield topics with chapter summaries presented at the end of each chapter are one of the major feature changes of the new edition. These allow students to develop the anatomical knowledge base, problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and integration of essential anatomical and clinical problems and concepts. The high-yield topics help students learn and understand most efficiently, review and recall essential information quickly, reinforce key concepts, and highlight most likely tested materials in course examinations as well as the state and national board examinations.
■ Developmental Anatomy The study of human embryology (normal development) and teratology (abnormal development) provides an important basis for the understanding of definitive human anatomy and is useful in guiding the students to apply the knowledge of human embryology to the clinical settings and problem-solving skills. Moreover, short summaries highlight the most important embryologic concepts in an effective, logical, and understandable way.
■ Review Test at the End of Each Chapter The chapter review tests consist of questions and answers that reflect the guidelines set forth by the National Board of Medical Examiners and the current USMLE format. The questions reinforce the key information and test basic anatomic knowledge and the students’ ability to interpret their observations and solve clinical problems. Therefore, clinically oriented questions and applications have been significantly increased because their fundamental utility is based on the relationship of anatomy to clinical medicine. More embryology questions are added and many test questions have been rewritten and updated. They are centered on a clinical situation that requires in-depth anatomic knowledge, problem-solving skills, and clinical applications. Expanded rationales for correct and incorrect answers are provided.
■ Comprehensive Examination
As before, the comprehensive examination is placed at the end of the book. It is useful in identifying specific knowledge deficits, filling the gaps in knowledge of clinical anatomy, and serving as an independent study, review resource, and self-assessment tool in preparation for the course final and state and national board examinations. It is the authors’ intention to invite feedback comments, constructive criticisms, and valuable suggestions from students and colleagues who choose this book as an aid to learning and teaching basic and clinical anatomy