Both generic an common bran names are liste .
Me ications are groupe into classes (“families”) base on their chemical, pharmacological, or clinical properties. It is often useful to stu y me ications on a class-by-class basis, i entifying similarities an ifferences among members of each class.
Controlled Substance Schedule
Title 21 of the Unite States Co e (USC) is the Controlle Substances Act of 1970. It regulates me ications with potential for abuse. These Fe eral regulations are overseen by the Drug Enforcement A ministration, but many States have enacte more strict regulations base on them. Me ications are place into sche ules base on their clinical use an their risk of abuse an epen ence. It is important to note that some States change the Fe eral sche uling of certain me ications. Un er Fe eral law, a State cannot place a me ication in a lower sche ule than where it is place by the Fe eral government (eg, States cannot change a rug place in Fe eral Sche ule II to Sche ule III, IV, or V), but States can an o place certain me ications in higher sche ules (eg, changing a rug place in Fe eral Sche ule V into Sche ule II, III, or IV, or changing a rug which is not a controlle substance un er Fe eral law into a controlle substance within that State).
• Schedule I: No me ical use, high abuse, an epen ence potential.
• Schedule II: Legitimate me ical use, high abuse, an epen ence potential.
• Schedule III: Legitimate me ical use, abuse, an epen ence potential somewhat less than Sche ule II.
• Schedule IV: Legitimate me ical use, abuse, an epen ence potential less than Sche ule III.
• Schedule V: Legitimate me ical use, limite abuse, an epen ence potential.
The most common osage forms an strengths are liste . Other osage forms may exist, an may be reference in the Clinical Pearls section.
Common FDA Label Indication, Dosing, and Titration
The US Foo an Drug A ministration (FDA) approves me ications for market, an also approves specific in ications for use an the oses for those uses. Some me ications are approve for only one in ication, while others are approve for many
Off -Label Uses
While every me ication must be approve by the FDA for at least one in ication before it is markete , FDA approval is not always sought for subsequent in ications. Prescribers are legally entitle to prescribe me ications for any in ication they feel is appropriate an clinically justifie . In most cases, prescribers limit their use of me ications to in ications for which evi ence supports safety an efficacy, as emonstrate in publishe clinical trials.
While these may not be FDA-approve in ications, “off-label” use is common an often completely appropriate. Common off-label uses are inclu e , along with osing recommen ations.
MOA (Mechanism o Action)
The MOA is a succinct summary of the pharmacological properties of each me ication.
Each car inclu es a table summarizing key rug parameters, as outline below. Dose Adjustments Hepatic A Chil -Pugh Score can be use to assess hepatic ysfunction. The score employs five clinical measures of liver isease. Each is score 1-3, with 3 in icating the most severe erangement of that measure. Base on the number of points for each measure, liver isease can be classifie into Chil -Pugh class A, B, or C.